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Stephen Salsbury ; Kay Sweeney Publisher: This page was last edited on 28 December , at In the Northern Territory, the once-common "Darwin Stubby", a large 2.

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Journal of risk management in financial institutions. - London: Henry Stewart Publ, ISSN , ZDB-ID - Vol. /10, 1, p.

The drink of choice for the first settlers and convicts was rum , as represented in a supposed traditional convict song:. The first official brewer in Australia was John Boston who brewed a beverage from Indian corn [6] bittered with cape gooseberry leaves.

It is likely though that beer was brewed unofficially much earlier. Rum was so popular—and official currency was in such short supply—that it became a semi-official currency for a period of time see Rum corps , and even played a role in a short-lived military coup, the Rum rebellion in Drunkenness was a significant problem in the early colony:.

Even children were to be seen in the streets intoxicated. On Sundays, men and women might be observed standing round the public-house doors, waiting for the expiration of the hours of public worship in order to continue their carousing.

As for the condition of the prison population, that, indeed, is indescribable. Notwithstanding the severe punishment for sly grog selling, it was carried on to a large extent. Men and women were found intoxicated together, and a bottle of brandy was considered to be cheaply bought for 20 lashes All that the vilest and most bestial of human creatures could invent and practise, was in this unhappy country invented and practised without restraint and without shame".

As a means of reducing drunkenness, beer was promoted as a safer and healthier alternative to rum:. I have therefore in conformity with your suggestion taken measures for furnishing the colony with a supply of ten tons of Porter, six bags of hops, and two complete sets of brewing materials.

Although modern Australian beer is predominantly lager, early Australian beer were exclusively top-fermented and quick-maturing ales.

Lager was not brewed in Australia until Early beers were also brewed without the benefit of hops, as no-one had successfully cultivated hops in Australia and importation was difficult. James Squire was the first to successfully cultivate hops in , and he also opened a pub and brewed beer.

The Government Gazette from mentions that he was awarded a cow herd from the government for his efforts. In September , a government-owned brewery opened in Parramatta, followed by a rival privately owned brewery three months later. The government brewery was sold two years later to Thomas Rushton, who was its head and only brewer. By the number of breweries had begun to dwindle as a result of the recession of the s. In , just after Federation , the new federal government passed the Beer and Excise Act.

This act regulated the making and selling of beer and made homebrewing illegal. The provisions in this act, regarded by many as draconian, led to the closure of many breweries. In Sydney 16 out of 21 breweries closed either immediately after the act's introduction or soon afterwards.

The remaining breweries began a process of consolidation, with larger breweries buying out the smaller ones. Within a short period of time, only two breweries remained in Sydney: In Melbourne, five breweries merged in to form the giant Carlton and United Breweries. Although Foster's Lager is not a popular domestic beer in the 21st century, its popularity internationally has grown and the product is made mostly for export.

In January , the brand was one of the ten best-selling beers globally. The introduction of the Tap King product by Lion Nathan in mid caused controversy due to the perceived impact upon alcohol venues. The product is a home draught beer dispenser and raised concerns regarding lower patronage rates for venues due to a greater incentive for consumers to drink beer in home environments.

The product is sold with a CO2 gas chamber that is cooled for eight hours prior to use. Before federation in , Australia was a patchwork of separate colonies, each with different laws regulating the production and sale of alcohol. In addition, until the late s when the rail network began to link the capital cities together, the only means of transporting foods in bulk between the colonies was by sea.

This prevented even the largest breweries from distributing significant amounts outside their home city. This allowed strong regional brands to emerge; and, although all but one of the major regional brands Coopers are now owned by multinational companies, loyalty to the local brewery remains strong today.

While Foster's Group owns many of these brands, Foster's Lager itself is not considered a local drink anywhere in Australia. Speciality brews in Australia are produced by both major brewers and microbreweries , and include a wide variety of ales. Microbreweries exist throughout the country, including small towns, but the availability of such beers on-tap in venues is often limited. We're a small brewery run by two former homebrewers who, for 15 years, have been making the kinds of beers that we like to drink.

Most breweries brew to a formula, something born in a focus group or in a marketing team meeting. We come up with our ideas at the bar. The batch of 30 bottles was created to raise money for the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society , which assisted with the procuring of the ice.

Imported premium beers have started to gain market share in Australia. Foster's Group brews Kronenbourg. Coopers Brewery brews Carlsberg in Australia. Brewers claim that their locally produced product tastes better because it is fresher, and local operations are overseen by the parent brewers using strict guidelines.

However, groups such as the Australian Consumers Association say that such beers should have clearer, more prominent labels to inform drinkers. Prior to metrification in Australia, one could buy beer in glasses of size 4, 5, 6, 7, 9, 10, 15 and 20 imperial fluid ounces.

Each sized glass had a different name in each Australian state. As Australians travel more, the differences are decreasing. It is also common for pubs and hotels to serve a large jug which will be filled to approximately ml. Many imported beers are served in their own branded glasses of various sizes, including millilitres 8. With the introduction of the National Trade Measurement Regulations in there are no prescribed sizes for beverage measures for the sale of beer, ale and stout.

Terms such as seven, middy, pot or schooner do not legally specify a particular size. Note that the SA "schooner" and "pint" are considerably smaller than the measures of the same name used elsewhere:. Usage and understanding of these names is now generally restricted to people born before about Headmasters is one of the most common glass manufacturers, at least for the schooner size. Grading comment merci 4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer. Votre banquier est pour ou dans ce genre.

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