UNS Standard Designations for Wrought and Cast Copper and Copper Alloys: Introduction
Jahrhundert Islamische Expansion wurde die äthiopische Christenheit vollständig vom Einfluss der europäischen Kirche abgeschnitten. Die ältesten Spielbretter 6. CDA assumes no responsibility or liability of any kind in connection with this publication or its use by any person or organization and CDA makes no warranties of any kind hereby or with respect to any of the information or data contained herein. Copper-Nickel-Zinc Alloys Known commonly as "nickel silvers," these are alloys which contain zinc and nickel as the principal and secondary alloying elements, with or without other designated elements.
This small capital stock was compounded by the difficulty in converting the German economy to the production of civilian goods, as well as rampant monetary and regulatory problems, leading to an unusually low economic output during the first post-war years. These initial problems were overcome by the time of the currency reform of , which replaced the Reichsmark with the Deutsche Mark as legal tender, halting rampant inflation.
This act to strengthen the West German economy had been explicitly forbidden during the two years that JCS was in effect. JCS had directed the U. At the same time, the government, following Erhard's advice, cut taxes sharply on moderate incomes. Walter Heller , a young economist with the U. Previously the tax rate on any income over 6, Deutschmark had been 95 percent.
After tax reform, this 95 percent rate applied only to annual incomes above , Deutschmark. For the West German with an annual income of about 2, Deutschmark in , the marginal tax rate fell from 85 percent to 18 percent.
The Allied dismantling of the West German coal and steel industries decided at the Potsdam Conference was virtually completed by ; equipment had then been removed from manufacturing plants in the west and steel production capacity had been reduced by 6,, tons. West Germany proceeded quickly after to rebuild its capital stock and thus to increase its economic output at stunning rates.
The very high capital investment rate thanks to low consumption and a very small need for replacement capital investments due to the still small capital stock drove this recovery during the s.
As noted by the British journalist Terence Prittie in the early Sixties:. Today the German working-man leads a comfortable life and wears a well-filled waistcoat. He eats well, and his food — although German cooking lacks the elegance of French — is wholesome and appetizing. He buys good clothes, and he dresses his wife and children well. He generally has money to spare for television sets, week-end excursions and football matches.
And he is not afraid of celebrating occasionally on a grander scale. Productivity growth in West Germany enabled most workers to obtain significant improvements in their living standards and 'security of life.
As real incomes rose, so public authorities were enabled and indeed encouraged to raise funds, both from taxation and through borrowing, to accelerate the rate of investment and current spending in projects which are partly immediately productive, partly conducive to the creation of the good life, as seen in Germany Any superficial examination of the German townscape, let alone perusal of the statistics, shows that Germany has spent sums on hospitals, libraries, theatres, schools, parks, railway-stations, socially-aided housing, underground railways, airports, museums, and so on which are simply not to be compared with British efforts in this direction.
In addition to the physical barriers that had to be overcome for the West German economic recovery, there were also intellectual challenges.
The Allies confiscated intellectual property of great value, all German patents, both in Germany and abroad, and used them to strengthen their own industrial competitiveness by licensing them to Allied companies. Immediately after the German surrender and for the next two years, the U. John Gimbel 's book " Science Technology and Reparations: Exploitation and Plunder in Postwar Germany " concludes the "intellectual reparations" taken by the U.
During the more than two years this policy was in place, new industrial research in Germany was hampered because it was unprotected and freely available to overseas competitors, encouraged by occupation authorities to access all records and facilities. Meanwhile, thousands of the best German researchers and engineers were working in the Soviet Union and in the U.
See Operation Osoaviakhim , Operation Paperclip. The Marshall Plan was only extended to Western Germany after it was realized the suppression of its economy was holding back the recovery of other European countries and was not the main force behind the Wirtschaftswunder.
However, often overlooked is the effect of the "unofficial contributions" of , U. These marks were spent within West Germany to buy food, luxury items, beer and cars, as well as entertaining the locals and for prostitutes.
The last repayment was made in June The demands of the Korean War in —53 led to a global shortage of goods that helped overcome lingering resistance to the purchase of West German products. Dem Glücklichen schlägt keine Stunde. Time doesn't matter when you're having fun. You want to reject this entry: To add entries to your own vocabulary , become a member of Reverso community or login if you are already a member.
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