World’s Largest Silver Reserves by Country


„van der Burse“ ab. Spanien und Portugal bekommen Zugang zu ungeahnten Gold‐ und Silberreserven in Afrika und Amerika. Kilogramm Gold 3,5 Millionen Kilogramm gelangen vor allem aus Kolumbien nach Spanien.

Demand for silverware in India Biological role The role of the element in humans, animals and plants.

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„van der Burse“ ab. Spanien und Portugal bekommen Zugang zu ungeahnten Gold‐ und Silberreserven in Afrika und Amerika. Kilogramm Gold 3,5 Millionen Kilogramm gelangen vor allem aus Kolumbien nach Spanien.

Besonders anschaulich werden die Verluste auf der Einnahmenseite der Minenbetreiber am Beispiel von Mexiko dokumentiert. Doch der Branchenprimus Mexiko steht ja nicht allein auf weiter Flur.

Den Minenbetreibern anderer Förderländer von Silber dürfte es derweil nicht anders ergangen sein. Doch warum nur wird dann weiter produziert, als gäbe es kein morgen mehr? Auf den ersten Blick erinnert die Situation ein wenig an die OPEC-Staaten, die sich trotz der um rund 60 Prozent gefallenen Ölpreise nach wie vor nicht auf eine Drosselung der Fördermenge einigen können und dem Weltmarkt weiterhin eine Ölschwemme bescheren.

Doch anders als bei der politischen Entscheidung der OPEC, die hauptsächlich - und nicht ganz erfolglos - darauf abzielt, die amerikanische Fracking-Konkurrenz in die Knie zu zwingen, handelt es sich bei der ungedrosselten Silberproduktion lediglich um ein pragmatisches Problem der Förderländer.

Vorrangig geht es dort um Kupfer, Blei und Zink. Deshalb wird Silber sozusagen nur beiläufig mitgenommen, quasi als Nebenprodukt des Bergbaus. Denn wollte man dort die Silberproduktion drosseln , müsste man zugleich die gesamte Förderung der Hauptmetalle aus diesen Minen senken.

Ein Szenario, das dort aus rein wirtschaftlicher Sicht keinesfalls vermittelbar ist. Gerade in Mexiko und China wird die Förderung dieser Metalle weiter hochgefahren.

Auf diese Weise hat China in den letzten zehn Jahren seine Silberproduktion sogar verdoppelt. Und auch aus Mexiko dürften schon bald bis zu 5. Diese Menge entspricht etwas mehr als einem Drittel der gesamten globalen Reserven.

Davon entfallen etwa In China lagern den Schätzungen zufolge noch Noch steht Peru bei der Silberproduktion an dritter Stelle hinter China.

Doch den umfangreichen Reserven des Landes nach zu urteilen könnte Peru schon bald einen oder gar zwei Zähler nach oben rücken. Auch dort sind die Reserven über Was derweil den Umfang der Silberreserven in Russland anbelangt, ist zwar nichts bekannt. Doch mit einer jährlichen Silberproduktion von 1. Den sechsten Platz nimmt Bolivien mit jährlichen 1. Das meiste Silber von dort stammt - nach einer langen und wechselvollen Geschichte - auch heute noch aus der Region um Potosi.

Die Reserven des Andenstaates werden aber immer noch auf Just hinter Bolivien folgt das südlich davon gelegene Nachbarland Chile mit jährlichen 1.

Diesselbe Menge wie Chile produziert derweil Polen 1. Die Silberreserven in unserem Nachbarstaat entsprechen mit In sogar um satte Tonnen auf insgesamt 1. Noch vor zwei Jahren war Kanada mit Silberreserven über lediglich 7. Doch auch in Kanada wird Silber - wie in den meisten Förderländern - hauptsächlich nur als profitables Nebenprodukt aus polymetallischen Lagerstätten gewonnen. Insgesamt förderten allein die Top Ten der globalen Silberproduzenten eine Gesamtmenge von Das entspricht einem Anteil von mehr als 83 Prozent an der gesamten weltweiten Minenproduktion.

Konzept, Gestaltung und Struktur, sowie insbesondere alle Grafiken, Bilder und Texte dieser Webseite sind urheberrechtlich geschützt. Missbrauch wird ohne Vorwarnung abgemahnt. Alle angezeigten Preise in Euro inklusive MwSt. Relative atomic mass The mass of an atom relative to that of carbon This is approximately the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. Where more than one isotope exists, the value given is the abundance weighted average.

Isotopes Atoms of the same element with different numbers of neutrons. CAS number The Chemical Abstracts Service registry number is a unique identifier of a particular chemical, designed to prevent confusion arising from different languages and naming systems. Murray Robertson is the artist behind the images which make up Visual Elements. This is where the artist explains his interpretation of the element and the science behind the picture. Where the element is most commonly found in nature, and how it is sourced commercially.

Atomic radius, non-bonded Half of the distance between two unbonded atoms of the same element when the electrostatic forces are balanced. These values were determined using several different methods. Covalent radius Half of the distance between two atoms within a single covalent bond.

Values are given for typical oxidation number and coordination. Electron affinity The energy released when an electron is added to the neutral atom and a negative ion is formed. Electronegativity Pauling scale The tendency of an atom to attract electrons towards itself, expressed on a relative scale. First ionisation energy The minimum energy required to remove an electron from a neutral atom in its ground state. The oxidation state of an atom is a measure of the degree of oxidation of an atom.

It is defined as being the charge that an atom would have if all bonds were ionic. Uncombined elements have an oxidation state of 0. The sum of the oxidation states within a compound or ion must equal the overall charge. Data for this section been provided by the British Geological Survey. An integrated supply risk index from 1 very low risk to 10 very high risk.

This is calculated by combining the scores for crustal abundance, reserve distribution, production concentration, substitutability, recycling rate and political stability scores. The percentage of a commodity which is recycled. A higher recycling rate may reduce risk to supply. The availability of suitable substitutes for a given commodity.

The percentage of an element produced in the top producing country. The higher the value, the larger risk there is to supply. The percentage of the world reserves located in the country with the largest reserves. A percentile rank for the political stability of the top producing country, derived from World Bank governance indicators.

A percentile rank for the political stability of the country with the largest reserves, derived from World Bank governance indicators. Specific heat capacity is the amount of energy needed to change the temperature of a kilogram of a substance by 1 K. A measure of the stiffness of a substance. It provides a measure of how difficult it is to extend a material, with a value given by the ratio of tensile strength to tensile strain. A measure of how difficult it is to deform a material.

It is given by the ratio of the shear stress to the shear strain. A measure of how difficult it is to compress a substance. It is given by the ratio of the pressure on a body to the fractional decrease in volume.

A measure of the propensity of a substance to evaporate. It is defined as the equilibrium pressure exerted by the gas produced above a substance in a closed system. This Site has been carefully prepared for your visit, and we ask you to honour and agree to the following terms and conditions when using this Site. Copyright of and ownership in the Images reside with Murray Robertson. The RSC has been granted the sole and exclusive right and licence to produce, publish and further license the Images.

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Jump to main content. Glossary Allotropes Some elements exist in several different structural forms, called allotropes. Glossary Group A vertical column in the periodic table. Glossary Image explanation Murray Robertson is the artist behind the images which make up Visual Elements. Appearance The description of the element in its natural form. Biological role The role of the element in humans, animals and plants. Natural abundance Where the element is most commonly found in nature, and how it is sourced commercially.

In this image a traditional alchemical symbol for the element is used. It is also used as a sun symbol, and much of the mythology around gold relates to the sun. Early alchemists were obsessed by gold and pursued their desire to transmute base metals usually lead into gold. A soft metal with a characteristic yellow colour.

It is chemically unreactive, although it will dissolve in aqua regia a mixture of nitric and hydrochloric acids. Most mined gold is stored as bullion. It is also, however, used extensively in jewellery, either in its pure form or as an alloy. The metal is also used for coinage, and has been used as standard for monetary systems in some countries. Gold can be beaten into very thin sheets gold leaf to be used in art, for decoration and as architectural ornament.

Electroplating can be used to cover another metal with a very thin layer of gold. This is used in gears for watches, artificial limb joints, cheap jewellery and electrical connectors.

It is ideal for protecting electrical copper components because it conducts electricity well and does not corrode which would break the contact. Thin gold wires are used inside computer chips to produce circuits. Dentists sometimes use gold alloys in fillings, and a gold compound is used to treat some cases of arthritis. Gold nanoparticles are increasingly being used as industrial catalysts. Vinyl acetate, which is used to make PVA for glue, paint and resin , is made using a gold catalyst.

Gold has no known biological role, and is non-toxic. Gold is one of the few elements to occur in a natural state. It is found in veins and alluvial deposits. About tonnes of gold are mined each year. About two-thirds of this comes from South Africa and most of the rest from Russia.

Seawater contains about 4 grams of gold in 1,, tonnes of water. Overall this is a huge amount of gold stored in the oceans but, because the concentration is so low, attempts to reclaim this gold have always failed. Help text not available for this section currently. Elements and Periodic Table History. Gold has been known since prehistoric times and was one of the first metals to be worked, mainly because it was to be found as nuggets or as particles in the beds of streams.

Such was the demand that by BC the Egyptians began mining gold. The death mask of Tutankhamen, who died in BC, contained kg of the metal. The royal graves of ancient Ur modern Iraq , which flourished from to BC, also contained gold objects.

The minting of gold coins began around BC in the Kingdom of Lydia situated in what is now modern Turkey using electrum, a native alloy of gold and silver. The first pure gold coins were minted in the reign of King Croesus, who ruled from — BC. Glossary Common oxidation states The oxidation state of an atom is a measure of the degree of oxidation of an atom.

Oxidation states and isotopes.