ŽIVNOSTENSKÝ REGISTER SLOVENSKEJ REPUBLIKY


Jack Kerouac (March 12, – October 21, ) was an American novelist and poet. He is considered a literary iconoclast and, alongside William S. Burroughs and Allen Ginsberg, a pioneer of the Beat Generation. Kerouac is recognized for his method of spontaneous prose.

Die nostalgische Gondel BJ brachte uns sicher zur Bergstation. I have written several songs. Send me e-mail, let me know how people reach you, and I'll be glad to let others know. This definitive remastered re-release also includes all of the rare tracks from the iCon "Heat of the Moment" EP.

Coming Soon!!!

Saavedra Lamas, Carlos (b. Nov. 1, , Buenos Aires, Argentina - d. May 5, , Buenos Aires), Argentine diplomat. He became secretary of the municipality of Buenos Aires and in was elected to parliament as a Liberal.

Nach einer Stärkung in der Gipfelwirtschaft ging es für die meisten wieder per Bahn, für einige per Pedes ins Tal zum Bus. Da nächste Ziel war die weltälterste Latschenölbrennei. Hier wurde uns die Erzeugung der Öle von der Latschenernte, der Rohstoffgewinnung und Herstellung der Kosmetika auf natürlicher Basis und traditionellen Kurmitteln gezeigt. Mit einer Kaffeepause am Pillersee ging ein wunderschöner Ausflug zu Ende. Bericht aus dem TT: Wenn das kein Grund zum Feiern ist!

Eröffnet wird das Jubiläumsjahr am Montag, März, ab 15 Uhr mit einem Familienkino im Stadtkino; es wird ein kleiner Kurzfilm als Überraschung im Vorprogramm gezeigt. Die Mitglieder des Vereins sind bereits um Zur Geschichte der Arbeiterwohlfahrt: Es entwickelte sich rasch eine tragfähige Organisation mit Schulungseinrichtungen für Sozialarbeiter, Kindergärten und Erholungsheimen.

Sie knüpften mit Hilfsaktionen für Kriegsheimkehrer, Flüchtlinge und elternlose Kinder an die Vorkriegsaktivitäten an. Mitglieder des Ortsvereins übernahmen die Verteilung der Lebensmittel von Unicef. In den Jahren bis konnten viele Notleidende mit Care-Paketen versorgt werden. Sie vereint Hort, Mittagsbetreuung und eine offene Ganztagsschule unter einem Dach.

Der Erlös kommt sozialen Zwecken zugute. Zunächst wurde den Besuchern ein Film gezeigt, der ihnen die Zusammensetzung und Arbeitsweise des Landtags näherbrachte. Auch über die Stiftung des Maximilianeums wurde berichtet. Sie ermöglicht bayrischen Einserabiturienten und neuerdings auch —Abiturientinnen ein kostenloses Studium incl. Kost und Logis im Landtagsgebäude.

Ein weiterer Diskussionspunkt in dieser Dringlichkeitssitzung war der Antrag eines SPD-Politikers zur stärkeren Förderung des sozialen Wohnungsbaus und einer sozial verträglicheren Mietpreispolitik. Als nächstes stand der direkte Gedankenaustausch mit dem Abgeordneten Pfaffmann auf dem Programm.

Der erfahrene Politiker stand zu allen Fragen ausführlich Rede und Antwort, wie z. Zahlreiche maskierte Gäste waren gekommen, um einen geselligen Nachmittag mit Tanz zu verbringen. Mit Rhythmen aus den vergangenen Jahrzehnten traf es den Geschmack der Besucher und tat sich daher nicht schwer, sie auf das Tanzparkett zu locken.

Den Nachmittag gestalteten das Jugendblasorchester aus Friedolfing sowie von der Musikschule Trostberg die "Liederbande" und der Jugendchor. Sehr interessant war das Feedback aus den unterstützten Organisationen wie die Spenden eingesetzt werden und welche Schwierigkeiten damit gelindert werden können.

Dafür sagen wir von der AWO herzlichen Dank! Der Schneiderpreis ging an diesem Abend an Anni Boretzky links. Somit ging ein anstrengender aber doch unterhaltsamer Spieleabend zu Ende. Mit Inkrafttreten des zweiten Pflegestärkungsgesetzes am 1. Keine Rolle spielt dabei, ob dies aufgrund körperlicher oder psychischer Einschränkungen der Fall ist. Statt der bisherigen drei Pflegestufen gibt es dann fünf Pflegegrade.

Versicherte, die am Pflegebedürftige mit rein körperlichen Einschränkungen erhalten anstelle ihre bisherigen Pflegestufe den nächsthöheren Pflegegrad. Pflegebedürftige, denen eine eingeschränkte Alltagskompetenz attestiert wurde, werden 2 Pflegegrade höher eingestuft. Zugleich werden die Leistungsbeträge angehoben. Durch die Umstellung wird also niemand schlechter gestellt. Wir nehmen Abschied von unserer ehemaligen Stüberlwirtin Elfriede Eder.

Hier hat sie den Besuchsdienst und die Betreuung von Jugendlichen mit gemeinnützigen Arbeitsstunden übernommen. Bei unserem diesjährigen Wochenausflug nach Radfeld führte uns ein Tagesausflug zum Silvrettastausee. Pölten, Wien, Bratislava nach Piestary, dem berühmten Heilbad. Bei einem herrlichen Rundblick konnten wir auch die Mündung der March in die Donau sehen. Hoch über der Stadt erhebt sich die Burg. Bei einem Stadtbummel konnten wir die Sehenswerten Kirchen und Häuser bestaunen.

Nach der Weinprobe wurde uns das Abendessen Enten braten serviert. Höhepunkt war am letzten Tag die Besichtigung des Schlosses "Bojuice". Es hat ähnliche Bedeutung im Land wie bei uns Schloss Neuschwanstein. Wir waren alle sehr beeindruckt. Am ersten Abend im Hotel, da ging es leider gar nicht schnell. Man hatte zwar den guten Willen, den Durst der Bayern rasch zu stillen. Es lehrt uns wieder die Erfahrung, nur wer ruft bekommt auch Nahrung.

Am nächsten Tag durch die Natur, draussen Regenschauer pur. Man freut sich auf das Mittagessen, den Regen könnt man dann vergessen. Essen stärkt doch Leib und Seele, ansonsten man sich schon sehr quäle.

Ein Murren war schon zu vernehmen, man soll ins Wirtshaus sich bequemen. Geplanter Gang durch Kurgefilde, stimmte auch nicht grad zur Milde. Man schlug vor zurückzureisen, um in der Slowakei zu speisen.

Nach Diskussion, etwas Verdruss, kam Gaby zu dem guten Schluss, besorgte uns das Mittagessen, keiner war mehr angefressen. Mit Pizzabrot und Nachtischkuchen konnt positiv sie Stimmung buchen. Die Heimfahrt war dann ganz entspannt, durch nun sonnig helles Land. Die Anwesenden bedankten sich bei den Gruppen mit viel Applaus. Die nostalgische Gondel BJ brachte uns sicher zur Bergstation. Von hier aus ergaben sich verschiedene Möglichkeiten zur Almhütte in der Schlegelmulde zu wandern und eine gemütliche Brotzeit zu geniesen.

Ambitionierte wanderten noch weiter auf den Hochschlegel und den Karkopf wo eine traumhafte Aussicht nach Salzburg, den Untersberg und die Berchtesgadener Berge für die kleine Mühe belohnte.

Am Nachmittag konnte noch in der Fussgängerzohne von Bad Reichenhall sparziert oder Kaffee getrunken werden. Nach dem Mittagessen fuhren die Ausflügler weiter zur Mautstation Ferleiten. Leider konnte der sagenhafte Schatz aus dem 3. Reich wieder nicht gefunden werden. Dennoch war es ein gelungener Ausflug. Von Gössel erreichten wir nach einem kurzen Spaziergang den Toplitzsee.

Nach der Plättenfahrt über den See, vorbei an den Wasserfällen erreichten wir das Ostufer und nach wenigen Gehminuten den Kammersee, den Ursprung der Traun. Den Rückweg ergänzte noch eine Schifffahrt über den Grundlsee bei strahlendem Sonnenschein und wunderbarem Bergpanorama.

Aus dem Orgelpfeiffer von M. Dort können gut erhaltene Kleidung, Kindersachen und Haushaltsartikel kostenlos abgegeben werden. Über das Jahr tummeln sich dort etwa 1. Nach der Sommerpause startet er wieder am Griesbeck bedankte sich bei Regina Rudholzner, die die Frauengruppe geleitet hat. Da sich diese Gruppe aus Gesundheits- und Altersgründen aufgelöst hat, soll es einen Ersatz geben.

The mechanism was originally designed to check the presence of two pennies by a weighing operation. It was set to a minimum and maximum acceptable weight for the coins as a safety margin, but as the fee was gradually increased to 3d and then 4d the safety margin became smaller and eventually unacceptable.

A mechanical counter was considered too expensive as the modifications needed would have been too many and too complex. To overcome this problem a new mechanism was devised by Hall Telephone Accessories Ltd and was in effect a combination of the two basic methods: The system required the smallest amount of additional equipment and could be easily fitted.

A limitation was that it could not be easily adapted for an increase beyond 4d. In the first versions of the new Pay-on-Answer payphones were being introduced and at the end of the s began to supersede the 'Button A and B' models.

This was made necessary following the introduction of Subscriber Trunk Dialling STD in major towns which allowed no reasonable modification to enable the 'A and B' box to be used to pay for automatically connected trunk calls. However, some 'A and Bs' remained in active use in Scotland until The primary reason for their retention lay in their remote locations.

Because the boxes functioned on a single-channel radio link there was no reasonable solution for many years that would allow the use of Subscriber Private Metering the principle on which the latest pre-payment payphones operated. The London to Glasgow trunk telephone cable with repeaters was completed to form the backbone of the British trunk network. The Post Office long-wave wireless station at Hillmorton, near Rugby with worldwide range, was brought into service on 1 January, known as Rugby Radio Station.

The station used a huge water-cooled transmitter call sign GBR , dissipating 10kW and using 54 thermionic valves on a wave length of 18, metres. Initially, it commenced transmission in Morse code on 16kHz with an aerial power of kW.

Later in the same year two-way conversation by radio telephone was also established for the first time between England and the USA from Rugby. The New York Wall Street stock market crashed - an event probably stimulated and speeded by the use of the telephone for the panic selling of shares.

A regular public transatlantic telephone service from London to New York using long-wave radio transmission on a wavelength of 5, metres 60kHz was begun on 7 January at 1. It provided a switching centre for exchanges in the Director Area which were not in direct communication. The director technique allowed the Strowger automatic system to be used in large cities, using a three letter exchange code in front of the number, and was introduced in Cast iron kiosks were introduced Kiosk No.

The installation of this kiosk was confined to London where many can be seen today and some large provincial towns following a competition held in It was first proposed in and a prototype was erected in Bath in In addition to the telephone it contained facilities for buying stamps and posting letters.

It was constructed in cast iron and was considerably larger than any of the other types. Painted vermilion outside and a flame colour inside, it gained the nickname of 'The Vermilion Giant'. They were intended to be a miniature Post Office, located where no such facilities existed or where expense prevented a sub-post office from being built.

Unfortunately these kiosks were unsuccessful. Many people complained about the noise of the stamp machine while they were using the telephone, and the rolls of stamps in the machine tended to become soggy in damp weather. For these reasons, and because of the high unit cost, the Post Office decided in that no further kiosks of this type would be installed. The London Toll system was divided between Toll 'A' and Toll 'B' exchanges because of the increase in Toll traffic which made it necessary to divide the direction of originated traffic.

The old exchange at Fetter Lane, opened in , became known as Toll 'B' and handled traffic into London. An international time signal was broadcast throughout the world from Rugby Radio Station. A joint development with the Admiralty and Board of Trade, it was intended to assist mariners. The time signals were generated from the Royal Greenwich Observatory. These clocks continued in use until , when caesium atomic standards were introduced. Test transmissions began earlier in the year with a transmitter located at Handley Cross Farm, Rugby.

An experimental wireless transmission of still pictures was carried out by the BBC on 30 October. The Post Office standard non-director exchange system was introduced. This meant that the Post Office had now standardised on the basis of two forms of equipment: On non-director exchanges the proportion of out-going traffic compared with that of director exchanges was comparatively small. Therefore, the general principle of backward holding the bridge being located in the final selector was adopted on non-director systems, whilst forward holding from the first selector was used on director exchanges.

The development of the immersed electrode principle in transmitter design made it possible for the Post Office to introduce two new innovative telephone designs Teles and These were the first instruments to successfully incorporate a 'hand combination' a handset with combined receiver and transmitter which could be used with central battery lines.

Provision was made in the circuit to reduce sidetone. The new designs were also revolutionary in their use of plastics, being among the first large-scale production items to be produced in 'Bakelite', and there was now a choice of colours. The first standardisation rural automatic exchange was opened at Haynes near Bedford on 4 February, a line unit No. Previously UK telegraph services with places outside Europe were conducted by telegraph companies, with the exception of wireless circuits with the Commonwealth and two Anglo-Canadian cables, which were worked by the Post Office.

However, as the Post Office long-distance wireless services were generally cheaper than the cable services, the telegraph companies were threatening to dispose of the cable system. For strategic reasons it was felt necessary to retain the cables under British control and the solution settled upon by the Conference was to merge the British wireless and cable interests.

Accordingly, the Post Office was required to hand over the 'beam' wireless stations and the two Anglo-Canadian cables to the new company on a year lease. The company was to operate on semi-public utility lines and was to be controlled by the Imperial Communications Advisory Committee see following entry.

The Imperial Communications Advisory Committee was constituted to advise the Government on technical questions, and international and Commonwealth issues. It comprised representatives of the defence services, the Post Office and the Commonwealth, and was chaired by a cabinet minister. In it was renamed the Commonwealth Communications Council and became the Commonwealth Telecommunications Board in This kiosk was intended for sites of special architectural importance, scenic localities and for general outdoor use in rural and urban areas.

In August it was decided to adopt the No. The actual design was very similar to the No. Only the window frames were painted red, with the rest of the kiosk being painted a stony grey colour. Because concrete was a rather poor material for telephone box construction this was the last standard box to employ its use.

A personal call service was introduced throughout the British inland trunk and toll telephone service on 1 August. An audioconferencing 'conference communication' system composed of transmitters and loudspeakers was used on 23 October to connect audiences in Manchester, Liverpool, Birmingham, Glasgow, Leeds, Newcastle, Cardiff, Southampton and Portsmouth with the Institution of Electrical Engineers in London.

On Monday 2 December, 22 experimental police telephone boxes, installed as part of a new scheme for policing were made available for general use in the Barnes, Kew and Richmond District of 'V' Division, Metropolitan Police District. A picture telegraph facsimile service between the Central Telegraph Office and Berlin was opened on 7 January. Services to other European cities soon followed. On-demand trunk service was introduced based on a new transmission and routing plan in which zones were divided into groups.

The principal exchange in each group, the Group Centre, had operational control of originating traffic for all dependent exchanges in the group. A radio-telephone service was opened with Australia on 30 April. The service was extended to South Africa and Argentina later in the year. The first voice-frequency telegraph system with 12 carrier channels was installed between London and Dundee. By means of voice-frequency dialling, operators at zone centres were able to dial directly to subscribers in distant zone centres, thereby avoiding the cost and delay involved with incoming operators.

An engineering complaint and repair service was made directly available to director subscribers by dialling 'ENG' and to some non- director subscribers by dialling '97'. The International Telecommunications Union the oldest of the intergovernmental organisations which form the specialised agencies of the United Nations was created from the International Telegraph Union and the International Radiotelegraph Union. The Bridgeman Committee was set up in under the chairmanship of Lord Bridgeman to investigate criticisms that the Post Office, as a large-scale commercial undertaking, should be run along the lines of a business concern rather than as an ordinary government department.

This criticism had culminated in a submission to the Prime Minister of a memorial signed by Members of Parliament asking for an enquiry into the status and organisation of the Post Office with a view to effecting any necessary changes in its constitution. The Bridgeman Committee's report, published in the same year, found no change to be necessary to the existing Parliamentary control, but drew attention to defects in the organisation.

The original structure of the Post Office telephone service was modelled on that of the National Telephone Company. Thus, on the commercial side the local operational unit was the Surveyor's District of which there were 13, excluding London. The Surveyor was responsible for the postal, telegraph and telephone services: Responsibility for the telegraph service was divided between the Surveyor's Office and the Head Postmasters. However, none of these officials had any control over the engineering aspects of the telephone and telegraph services.

The engineering field was the responsibility of totally separate Superintending Engineers Districts, each under the control of a Superintending Engineer who had a number of Sectional Engineers working to him. The organisation was further confused by the fact that neither the District Managers' and the Sectional Engineers' Districts, nor those of the Surveyors and the Superintending Engineers were conterminous. Moreover, the engineering and non-engineering sides were each responsible to separate headquarters in London: This centralisation of authority in London prevented real local responsibility, and the separate rigid hierarchies prejudiced effective co-ordination of operational and engineering effort.

A departmental committee under the chairmanship of Sir Thomas Gardiner was then appointed with the aim of promoting efficiency in Post Office organisation and to deal with the application of the substantially increased decentralisation recommended by the Bridgeman Committee.

The Gardiner Committee's recommendations, published in its report of , led to the setting up of eight regions in the provinces, each in the charge of a Regional Director responsible for the control and co-ordination of all Post Office services within his region. Additional to these eight provincial regions, two further regions were set up in London - one for Posts and one for Telecommunications.

The provincial regions were divided into Head Postmasters' districts for the management of the postal and the telegraph services in practice these were already in existence. The telephone service regions were divided into telephone Areas under Telephone Managers, of which there were ultimately 57 for the provinces and nine in London.

Telephone Managers, with Head Postmasters acting as their agents on certain matters, were to be responsible for the day-to-day control of all aspects of the telephone service engineering, traffic, sales and accounts. They were also to be accountable to the Regional Director for the overall efficiency of the telephone service in their territory.

The first two regions Scotland and North East were set up in , followed by the two London regions Telecoms and Postal , and the changes throughout the country were in place by With this large degree of devolution to the regions, there was now a need for central co-ordination and an overall scrutiny of Regional performance, as ultimate responsibility still remained with the Headquarters Administration.

To deal with posts, telecommunications, buildings and staff pay, five committees were constituted when the earliest Regions were set up. The task of these committees was to scrutinise annual estimates, compare actual with estimated expenditure, and to study performance statistics. The committees were composed of representatives from relevant departments and each committee included representatives of the Accountant General's Department.

The first ultra-short-wave radio telephone link, used as part of the inland telephone network, was set up across the Bristol Channel, over a distance of 13 miles. The first submarine cable for carrier working was laid from Britain to La Panne in Belgium.

The Post Office introduced trunk service on demand, relieving telephone users of the need to book trunk calls in advance. The Post Office introduced telephones with anti-sidetone induction coil. The anti-sidetone telephone circuit had been invented in The first British experiments in carrier telephony were carried out using the London-Derby cable. Sleeve-control switchboards were introduced. These permitted any position and any cord circuit to be used to handle any type of trunk circuit.

The first 'Strowger' type non-director exchange with a remote manual board was opened at Horsforth. Imperial Chemical Industries Ltd. This material, because of its low dielectric constant, became widely used for submarine cable insulation in place of gutta-percha and rubber, and for many other purposes in telecommunications.

The first nine-channel bothway voice frequency telegraph system using a four-wire telephone circuit was brought into service. This system provided automatic calling clearing and supervisory conditions over long-distance circuits. Before the creation of the BTTDC each manufacturer had individually carried out their own design and development for Post Office contracts. As a result of the setting up of the BTTDC all development work for the Post Office was shared between the five parties and all information produced for the Post Office was to be known to all parties.

The aim was to standardise equipment design and obviate parallel development. The Post Office and its five exchange equipment suppliers were now able to coordinate further development and promote a high degree of standardisation of circuitry and components, particularly of relays and selectors.

It had sleeve-control positions equipped for circuits. Known as the 'switchboard of the world', cable and wireless telephone channels radiated from Faraday across the globe. The later use of high-frequency radio circuits, which involved rather different operating techniques, required the opening of a specialised exchange in Wood Street.

Black, an American, formulated the principle of negative feedback, revolutionising the design of telephone repeaters. On 1 October, the Post Office introduced cheap night rates - 1s 5p maximum - for trunk telephone calls as part of the Kingsley Wood the then Postmaster-General plan for advertising and popularising the telephone.

The transferred-charge service was first introduced on the inland telephone system in this year. This enabled callers to have a call made through an operator charged to the person receiving that call. It was a transportable kiosk made of steel-faced plywood, which could be assembled and dismantled, for use at exhibitions and other temporary locations.

It is not known how many were made, and none appear to have survived to the present day. Short-range radiotelephone service with coastal ships was opened via the Seaforth Radio coast station. The first commercial use of a microwave radio link was introduced, between Lymne in Kent and St Inglevert in France, 35 miles apart.

The first telephone multi-channel working three channels per open-wire circuit was introduced. The speaking clock was introduced, a service at first available only in London at Holborn Exchange. The Post Office had held a competition to decide on the voice to be recorded, and subscribers dialling TIM would hear the 'golden voice' of Miss Jane Cain, a London telephone operator, giving the Greenwich time correct to one-tenth of a second.

The accuracy of the speaking clock was calibrated and corrected by referencing to a time signal from the Royal Greenwich Observatory which was broadcast by Rugby Radio Station. The voice of Jane Cain was replaced by that of Pat Simmons in The K2 had not penetrated far outside London, but the 'Jubilee' model became the first genuinely standard kiosk and was installed all over the country.

Under the "Jubilee Concession", introduced as part of that year's celebrations, kiosks were to be provided in every town or village with a post office, regardless of cost.

As a result of this scheme over 8, new kiosks were installed, adding impetus to the spread of the K6. In the following year, the "Tercentenary Concession" was introduced: This scheme remained in force until , and led to almost another 1, K6s being introduced. The "Rural Allocation Scheme" was introduced to replace it: The 'Jubilee Kiosk' is perhaps the best remembered example of Gilbert Scott's work with the possible exception of Liverpool Cathedral and is to this day fondly regarded as a typical British landmark.

K6s survived the introduction of Nos. Thousands of old K6 kiosks were sold off at public auctions. Some were scrapped, but many more were put to a variety of imaginative and bizarre uses in private hands. However, the Department of the Environment and English Heritage worked with BT to identify kiosks, including more than 1, K6s, worthy of listing as being of special architectural and historical interest, mainly near existing listed buildings or in attractive town and country locations.

BT's approach had now almost gone full circle: In there were over 15, of these old style kiosks in heritage sites, and the K6 kiosk was by now a registered design of British Telecommunications plc.

From November , BT licensed K6 kiosks for use by competitors. In , BT operated a network of over, public payphones of various designs across the UK, compared to 81, ten years previously, with an average of 5, new units being installed each year.

The 'Pip' tone signal was provided on timed calls as a regular feature for the first time from 15 August. The world's first channel carrier cable for commercial traffic was laid between Plymouth and Bristol. The world's first coaxial cable was laid by the Post Office between London and Birmingham, providing 40 channels for telephone traffic.

The London Telecommunications Region and eight provincial regions were set up as a result of the findings of the Bridgeman Committee. The first nine-channel short-wave radio link was installed between Belfast and Stranraer in Scotland. EMI developed a method of television transmission over screened pair cables and produced equipment which gave successful transmission of line television over 15 miles of cable.

This was used for the broadcast of the coronation of George VI in May The emergency telephone service was made available to London subscribers from 30 June and was later extended throughout the country. When was dialled a buzzer sounded in the exchange and a red light flashed to draw an operator's immediate attention. This was very far removed from the sophisticated information service designed by BT and launched on 6 October A pair of submarine coaxial telephone cables was laid between Great Britain and Holland carrying 16 circuits a four channel system and a channel system.

The first channel carrier telephone system on special carrier cable was opened between Bristol and Plymouth. The London to Birmingham coaxial cable was brought into use, initially carrying 40 circuits with wideband working.

A H Reeves, an Englishman , invented Pulse Code Modulation , a revolutionary new system of telephonic transmission. The outbreak of war on 3 September heralded six years of hugely increased activity and demand for the Post Office, placing great strain on its resources.

An almost immediate effect was the sharp drop in available staff as over 73, men and women from the Post Office joined the armed forces within the first few weeks of the war - 15 per cent of the total staff.

In some areas the loss was even more keenly felt; 25 per cent of Post Office engineers joined up in , and a substantial percentage of Post Office technical research and telecommunications operating staff were absorbed into signals units of the Forces. Some preparations prior to September had already been made when war seemed likely. Additional cables had been laid between important towns over different and alternative routes, particularly vulnerable sites had been by-passed, and old manual telephone exchanges when superseded by automatic exchanges were not dismantled, but held in reserve.

In addition, public trunk lines were earmarked for future use of the Services, and these were promptly switched over in September During the first six months of the war, before heavy German bombing started, the Post Office made use of the opportunity to complete the link up by telephone and telegraph of Home Defences, particularly Fighter and Anti-Aircraft Commands.

By the time of the Battle of Britain, as the Headquarters of Fighter Command, at Bently Priory near Stanmore, Middlesex, was a communications centre in touch with all defence stations and information sources across the country via Post Office facilities.

From here the Commander-in-Chief was able to observe the broad 'air picture' and co-ordinate his Fighter Groups. In addition to the vast telephone communications network provided by the Post Office for raid reporting, a complex teleprinter network was also installed. With the collapse of France and when invasion seemed a real possibility, new aerodromes, battery sites, searchlight centres and radar stations had to be set up - and all needed linking with telephone communications, again carried out by Post Office engineers.

Later in the war, as part of the preparations for the Normandy invasion, a new network of cables, switchboards, telephones and teleprinters had to be set up along England's south coast to control the D-Day build up. Once the invasion was under-way, new cross-channel cables were laid and by VE-Day the Post Office had made direct communication possible by telephone or teleprinter to all Allied Forces in North West Europe.

On the home front the Post Office had soon organised itself to meet the demands of the war. ARP services were set up in all departments, and a Home Guard Force of over 50, was raised to defend Post Office telegraph and telephone systems in the event of invasion.

Other Post Office Defence Forces included medical staff, fire fighters and first aiders, all of whom were particularly called upon during the bombing raids of the early war years. During this time Post Office engineers battled to repair bomb damage to plant and cables, yet were still able to open the additional military channels of communication described above. The contribution of the Post Office, particularly on the telecommunications side, was significant enough to earn the praise of General Eisenhower, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe.

Although under great strain, the Post Office met the challenges demanded of it, largely through the efforts and sacrifices of its staff. Of the 73, men and women who left the Post Office to join up, 3, gave their lives. On the Home Front, a further Post Office employees died whilst carrying out their responsibilities. This beginning of trunk mechanisation allowed operators to dial distant subscribers without the assistance of a second operator.

International telephone services were suspended on 30 August with a few exceptions and not restored until 23 June with the reopening of the service to the USA, Canada, and Kenya.

On 29 December the CTO was set on fire by burning debris blown in from adjacent buildings in one of the most destructive German air attacks of the Second World War. A reserve telegraph instrument room had been established in the basement of King Edward Building nearby and, in the longer term, telegraph services were maintained by transferring work to the outskirts of London.

The interior of the building was completely destroyed. Its damaged upper floors were unsafe and had to be dismantled. The shell of the ground and first floors was refurbished - the ground floor for office accommodation, and the first for instrument rooms. The new telegraph equipment was opened for service in June The transfer of the London Toll 'A' lines to automatic working and the opening of the new manual board took place on 14 November.

A VHF radio multi-channel telephone link was converted to frequency modulation for the first time. The first submerged repeater was laid in the Irish Sea between Anglesey and the Isle of Man in a submarine coaxial cable using a rigid housing suitable to fathoms.

What is generally regarded as the world's first programmable electronic computer Colossus was designed and constructed by a Post Office Research Branch team headed by T H Flowers Bletchley Park was the centre of British wartime code breaking operations. The purpose of Colossus was to decipher German non-Morse encrypted communications - known as "Fish" at Bletchley - which were transmitted at high speeds on a teleprinter machine, called the Lorenz SZ, using the Baudot 32 letter alphabet.

The mathematician Bill Tute had broken the German teleprinter codes in , but it was recognised that the decryption process could be largely automated to reduce the time taken to decipher the messages. Flowers was consulted by Max Newman later Professor of Mathematics at Manchester who was responsible for the automation process. Flowers had been involved with work at Bletchley since the previous year, when the mathematician Alan Turing and fellow cryptanalysts had sought technical assistance from the Post Office in the breaking of Enigma.

He proposed using valves instead of the mechanical switching units employed in an earlier device. His proposal was not taken seriously at first, since valves were thought to be too unreliable and fragile, but Flowers knew from his pre-war research into electronic telephone systems that valves were reliable if they were not moved or switched off.

It is now recognised that without the contribution of the code breaking activity, in which Colossus played a major part, the war may have lasted considerably longer.

It was in the preparations for D Day that Colossus proved most valuable, since it was able to track in detail communications between Hitler and his field commanders. Flowers had been told that it had to be ready by June or it would not be of any use.

He was not told the reason for the deadline, but realising that it was significant he ensured that the new version was ready for 1 June, five days before D-Day. A working replica of Colossus has been constructed in recent years and housed at Bletchley Park. The original Colossus consisted of 1, valves the Mark II used 2, valves and was the size of a small room, weighing around a ton. Described by Flowers as a "string and sealing wax affair", it nevertheless could do in hours what otherwise could have taken weeks, being able to process 5, characters a second to run through the many millions of possible settings for the code wheels on the German enciphered teleprinter system.

Designed as a code breaking machine, and without an effective memory or a stored program, it was not quite what is regarded as a computer today. Nevertheless, it predated other contenders for the title of the first modern working computer, and was the forerunner of later digital computers. A newly built counterpart to GBR was able to take traffic within a few days. The damage to the building and GBR was repaired within six months.

It became the Commonwealth Telecommunications Board in Arthur C Clarke, an English expert on space research and later to become renowned for his science fiction classic ' A Space Odyssey', suggested in 'Wireless World' the use of synchronous satellites for communications, the first occasion such a concept was proposed. The CS Alert No. The German cableship ' Nordeney ' was given to the Post Office as a replacement for war losses and was renamed the Alert , the third of that name.

She was scrapped in Some continental telephone and telegraph and transatlantic telephone services were reopened. In many ways, nationalisation did not dramatically affect the way the company operated. Successive Governments left it largely to its own devices, though with strict limits on its ability to spend and expand. From the company was allowed rather more commercial freedom, so long as it agreed to consult with the Government over any major programmes which might be politically or financially sensitive.

With the election of a new Conservative Government in , committed to the withdrawal of state intervention in industry and the free market philosophy, a new approach was inevitable. There were further sales of Government shares in November and December This saving to the public resulted from careful salvage of every type of material no longer fit for service.

Condemned telephone and telegraph cables, wires and instruments were broken down and the component metals separated for bulk disposal. More than 9, tons of scrap lead and 1, tons of scrap copper were recovered and sold. A shared service was made obligatory for all new residential applicants and for removing residence subscribers. The phototelegraph service with Europe was re-introduced for the first time since the beginning of the war.

The Tercentenary Scheme for the provision of telephone kiosks was abolished. The Rural Allocation Scheme was introduced: A London-Birmingham television radio relay link was opened using large tube coaxial television cables. The Commonwealth Communications Council, founded in , was reconstituted as the Commonwealth Telecommunications Board with essentially the same terms of reference. A long-distance television cable was brought into service between London and Sutton Coldfield, the first of its kind.

Field trials of the pressurisation of trunk and junction cables radiating from Leatherhead were held. The success of the Strowger system to meet network demands - largely as a result of the arrangements under the Telephone Exchange Equipment Bulk Supply Agreement signed in and the British Telephone Technical Development Committee set up in - led to an important decision. There had been rapid advances in electronic techniques during and immediately following the Second World War which led the Post Office and their exchange equipment manufacturers to believe that electronic exchanges could be developed within a short space of time without pursuing alternative electro-mechanical systems.

As a result, the decision was now taken to work towards a progressive change of the network from mechanical Strowger systems to electronic systems. These initiatives were put in place to examine various possible solutions for electronic exchanges, and to avoid unnecessary duplication of research and development by sharing such work amongst the five manufacturers party to the Bulk Supply Agreement with the Post Office.

The hope was that the intermediate step of the introduction of register controlled crossbar systems, apparent in other telecommunications administrations elsewhere, would not be necessary under this policy. In the event, development of electronic systems proved more difficult than originally thought, and by the Automatic Telephone and Electric Company realised that to maintain their position in the export market they needed a viable crossbar system to market.

As a result the company developed in time the Crossbar System. Original development of electronic systems was based on time-division- multiplex techniques and a prototype TDM exchange was built and installed in the Post Office Research Station at Dollis Hill. Parties to JERC co-operated in designing and building a large electronic exchange of the same type which was put into service by the Post Office at Highgate Wood in The experience of Highgate Wood showed that TDM techniques were uneconomic and difficult to achieve with the technology and components then available.

The parallel space division approach, using reed relays for switching, proved more promising and development was concentrated in this area, leading eventually to the successful TXE2 and later the TXE4 systems. Private Automatic Branch Exchanges Nos.

A Telephone Act became law in August which enabled the Postmaster-General to set rental charges and so forth by statutory regulation.

The passing of the Act was the first recognition in law of the telephone as a separate instrument from the telegraph. It was also the first Telephone Act passed by Parliament, 75 years after the invention of the telephone. Gesang Vortragsabend der Gesangsklassen von Prof. Prayner Konservatorium, Ehrbarsaal Karten: Bezirksmuseum Josefstadt Rundreise der Traditionen: Theorie und Geschichte der Monodie Kartenreservierungen und Info, konzerte stadtinitiative.

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Gitarre Vortragsabend der Klassen von Prof. Smrzek Prayner Konservatorium Datum: Vienna Konservatorium Stiegergasse , Wien Vortragssaal. Violine Vortragsabende der Klasse von Prof. Vortragssaal Stiegergasse , Wien Vienna Konservatorium. Stock, Wien Eintritt frei.